Buddhism is a method of achieving "Nirvana," or liberation from suffering. The method of releasing this was discovered by a man called
the Buddha (a title which means "The Awakened One" or one who has been awakened to the true nature of existence). The method of liberation
he discovered is called the Eightfold Path (a very specific set of practical guidelines for daily living).
The overall tone of the
Buddhist lifestyle is living with compassion and kindness, doing no harm at all, and being helpful towards all peoples regardless
of their racial, religious or political differences. The most important objectives a Buddhist has in life are to become liberated
from suffering by realizing the state of enlightenment, and also to help other beings become enlightened.
Buddhism is one of the oldest
religions, taught by the Lord Buddha more than 2,500 years ago. There are many sects of Buddhism, but the one that we will discuss
is Theravada Buddhism.
- What makes Buddhism still valuable after 2,500 years?
Buddhism is a religion of practice. You are not taught to believe or pray for anything blindly. The teaching is mainly to point to
the facts of life. It gives us the method of practice and if you have confidence in following the direction, then you will experience
the results yourself (cause & effect).
- What is the main goal of Buddhism?
The goal is “Who am I and What can one do to live this life happily?”
- Who am I ? You are composed of 2 parts, your body and your mind. Body is the matter that can be seen, such as feet, hands, etc.. Mind
is energy , so you can’t see it, but the mind can know, feel happy and unhappy, have memories, think and plan, and sense through vision,
hear, taste, smell, and touch.
- What makes me happy or unhappy ? What can I do about it? The Buddha had made this great discovery to
answer these questions and he used these teachings to help his disciples. These facts, or what we call the Four Noble Truths, made
him different from other religious leaders and earned him the title of “The Lord Buddha” or “The one who knows”
- What are the Four Noble Truths?
They are - What is suffering
- What causes suffering
- What is the end of suffering
- How to end suffering
- What is suffering and what cause of suffering?
Since you were born, the body has been and will be subject to changes; you may feel some discomfort, you may get sick, etc.. If you
don’t accept these changes, certainly you will be upset, unhappy and anxious for it to go away. The same thing is true for your mind.
If you don’t get what you want or get what you don’t want, that will bring on your suffering as well. So now you can see that most
of you un-happiness or happiness stems from the condition of our mind.
- How do you care for your body?
You eat the right food, exercise, sleep, use proper clothing and shelter, take medicine when you are sick, etc..
- Does our mind need the same care?
Certainly ! But we have tendencies to neglect it. We do not realize that we use our mind all the time, even while asleep. We still
- How do we exercise and rest our mind?
The method used is generally called “Meditation or Mental Cultivation”. It is the way we slow our mind down and let it rest. Once
it’s rested, the mind will be more aware of what you’re future use. You will be more aware of what you’re doing, can see things clearly,
understand it more readily and make more appropriate decisions. You will also experience the happiness that comes from peaceful feeling.
We will now let you experience some suffering and try to get to know your mind.
- HISTORY of BUDDHA
- NOBLE TRUTH & EIGHTFOLD PATH
- THE 5 PRECEPTS
History of Buddha
Siddhartha (Buddha) was born around 563 B.C.E. in the town of Kapilavastu (located in today's Nepal). Siddhartha's
parents were King Shuddhodana and Queen Maya, who ruled the Sakyas. His history is a miraculous one... One night, Queen Maya dreamed
that an elephant with six tusks, carrying a lotus flower in its trunk, touched her right side. At that moment her son was conceived.
Brahmins (learned men) came and interpreted the dream. The child would be either the greatest king in the world or the greatest ascetic
(a holy man who practices self-denial). The future child would be named Siddhartha, which means "he whose aim is accomplished."
when Queen Maya was going to her father's home to prepare for the birth, she stepped off her chariot in the Lumbini Gardens and held
the branch of a sal tree to rest. In that instant, Siddhartha emerged from her right side without any help. The infant walked seven
steps each in four directions of the compass, and lotus flowers sprouted from where his foot touched the earth. Then the infant said,
"No further births have I to endure, for this is my last body. Now shall I destroy and pluck out by the roots the sorrow that is caused
by birth and death." Seven days later Queen Maya died. Mahaprajapati, Maya's sister, looked after Siddhartha. King Shuddhodana shielded
Siddhartha from all kinds of suffering and hardship. When Siddhartha was about 20, he married Yasodhara, daughter of one of the King's
ministers, and one year later they had a child named Rahula (meaning "fetter" or "impediment").
At age 29, Siddhartha asked his charioteer,
Channa, to take him out of the city two times without the consent of the king. During these two trips, Siddhartha saw "Four Sights"
that changed his life. On the first trip, he saw old age, sickness, and death. The second trip, he saw a wandering holy man, an ascetic,
with no possessions. Siddhartha started questioning the holy man, who had a shaved head, wore only a ragged yellow robe, and carried
a walking-staff. The man said, "I am... terrified by birth and death and therefore have adopted a homeless life to win salvation...
I search for the most blessed state in which suffering, old age, and death are unknown." That night, Siddhartha silently kissed his
sleeping wife and son, and ordered Channa to drive him out to the forest. At the edge of the forest, Siddhartha took off his jeweled
sword, and cut off his hair and beard. He then took off all his princely garments and put on a yellow robe of a holy man. He then
ordered Channa to take his possessions back to his father.
Siddhartha then wandered through northeastern India, sought out holy men,
and learned about Samsara (reincarnation), Karma, and Moksha. Attracted to the ideas of Moksha, Siddhartha settled on the bank of
Nairanjana River, and adopted a life of extreme self-denial and penances, meditating constantly. After six years of eating and drinking
only enough to stay alive, his body was emaciated, and he was very weak. Five other holy men joined him, hoping to learn from his
One day, Siddhartha realized that his years of penance only weakened his body, and he could not continue to meditate properly.
When he stepped into the river to bathe, he was too weak to get out, and the trees lowered their branches to help him. In that instant,
a milk-maid named Nandabala came and offered a bowl of milk and rice, which Siddhartha accepted. The five holy men left Siddhartha
after witnessing this. Refreshed by the meal, Siddhartha sat down under a fig tree (often referred to as the Bo tree, or Tree of Enlightenment)
and resolved to find out an answer to life and suffering. While meditating, Mara (an evil god) sent his three sons and daughters to
tempt Siddhartha with thirst, lust, discontent, and distractions of pleasure. Siddhartha, unswayed, entered a deep meditation, and
recalled all his previous rebirths, gained knowledge of the cycle of births and deaths, and with certainty, cast off the ignorance
and passion of his ego which bound him to the world. Thereupon, Siddhartha had attained enlightenment and became the Buddha (enlightened
one). His own desire and suffering were over and, as the Buddha, he experienced Nirvana... "There is a sphere which is neither earth,
nor water, nor fire, nor air...which is neither this world nor the other world, neither sun nor moon. I deny that it is coming or
going, enduring, death or birth. It is only the end of suffering." Instead of casting off his body and his existence, however, Buddha
made a great act of self-sacrifice. He turned back, determined to share his enlightenment with others so that all living souls could
end the cycles of their own rebirth and suffering.
Buddha went to the city of Sarnath and found the previous five holy men that deserted
him earlier at a deer park. When they saw Buddha this time, they realized that he had risen to a higher state of holiness. The Buddha
began teaching them what he had learned. He drew a circle in the ground with rice grains, representing the wheel of life that went
on for existence after existence. This preaching was called his Deer Park Sermon, or "Setting in Motion the Wheel of Doctrine." Siddhartha
revealed that he had become the Buddha, and described the pleasure that he had first known as a prince, and the life of severe asceticism
that he had practiced. Neither of these was the true path to Nirvana. The true path was the Middle Way, which keeps aloof from both
"To satisfy the necessities of life is not evil," the Buddha said. "To keep the body in good health is a duty, for otherwise
we shall not be able to trim the lamp of wisdom and keep our mind strong and clear." Buddha then taught them the Dharma, which consisted
of the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. The five holy men and others soon joined Buddha, accompanying him everywhere. As
more joined, Buddha organized the Sangha, a community of bhikkus (dedicated monks and later nuns). The Sangha preserved the Dharma,
and allowed bhikkus to concentrate on the goal of Nirvana. On raining seasons they would settle in Viharas (resting places in cave
dwellings). Upasaka, followers who believed in Buddha's teachings, but could not follow the stict rule of the Sangha, were taught
to follow the Five Precepts. Buddha returned to his birthplace in Kapilavastu, and his father was mortified to see his son begging
for food. Buddha kissed his father's foot and said, "You belong to a noble line of kings. But I belong to the lineage of buddhas,
and thousands of those have lived on alms." King Shuddhadana then remembered the Brahmin's prophesy and reconciled with his son. Buddha's
wife, son, and cousin (Ananda) later joined the Sangha.
When Buddha was about eighty, a blacksmith named Cuanda gave him a meal that
caused him to become ill. Buddha forced himself to travel to Kushinagara, and laid down on his right side to rest in a grove of shala
trees. As a crowd of followers gathered, the trees sprouted blossoms and showered them on Buddha. Buddha told Ananda, "I am old and
my journey is near its end. My body is like a worn-out cart held together only by the help of leather straps." Three times, Buddha
asked the people if they had any questions, but they all remained silent. Finally Buddha said, "Everything that has been created is
subject to decay and death. Everything is transitory. Work out your own salvation with diligence. After passing through several states
of meditation, the Buddha died, reaching Parinirvana (the cessation of perception and sensation).
Source: Books research & internet